Ytterbium Nuclear-Spin Qubits in an Optical Tweezer Array

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We report on the realization of a fast, scalable, and high-fidelity qubit architecture, based on 171 Yb atoms in an optical tweezer array. We demonstrate several attractive properties of this atom for its use as a building block of a quantum information processing platform. Its nuclear spin of 1 / 2 serves as a long-lived and coherent two-level system, while its rich, alkaline-earth-like electronic structure allows for low-entropy preparation, fast qubit control, and high-fidelity readout. We present a near-deterministic loading protocol, which allows us to fill a 10 × 10 tweezer array with 92.73(8)% efficiency and a single tweezer with 96.0(1.4)% efficiency. In the future, this loading protocol will enable efficient and uniform loading of target arrays with high probability, an essential step in quantum simulation and information applications. Employing a robust optical approach, we perform submicrosecond qubit rotations and characterize their fidelity through randomized benchmarking, yielding 5.2 ( 5 ) × 10 − 3 error per Clifford gate. For quantum memory applications, we measure the coherence of our qubits with T ∗ 2 = 3.7 ( 4 )s and T 2 = 7.9 ( 4 )s , many orders of magnitude longer than our qubit rotation pulses. We measure spin depolarization times on the order of tens of seconds and find that this can be increased to the 100 s scale through the application of a several-gauss magnetic field. Finally, we use 3D Raman-sideband cooling to bring the atoms near their motional ground state, which will be central to future implementations of two-qubit gates that benefit from low motional entropy.

Year of Publication
2022
Date Published
2022-05
Journal Title
Physical Review X
Volume
12
Issue
2
Start Page or Article ID (correct)
021027
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